Objective: analyze post accident procedures and demographic data that determine accidents and estimate their incident due to exposure to biological material.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out with the multiprofessional team of an Emergency Medical Service in Minas Gerais, Brazil between June and December 2006. A structured questionnaire was used, and descriptive analysis, computation of incidents and logistic regression were conducted.
Results: Among the 116 participants, 15.5% were physicians, 7.8% nurses, 55.2% nursing technicians and auxiliaries and 21,5% were drivers. The majority (56.0%) were male; 57.1% graduated before 2000; 59.5% worked at the hospital for more than one year and 70.7% were assigned to the basic support unit. The general incidence of accidents with biological material was of 19.8%, 39.1% occurred due to contact with piercing cutting material and 56.5% due to body fluid contact with mucosa; 33.3% occurred among physicians, 24.0% drivers, 15.6% nursing technicians/auxiliaries and 11.1% among nurses. Post accident procedures: no medical evaluation 69.6%; under notification 91.3%; no procedure 52.2%; no serological follow-up 52.2% (Table 1). Variables associated with accidents: being older than 31 years p=0.014 (OR= 3.0; CI95%: 1.2–7.3) and being assigned to the Basic Support Unit, p=0.010 (OR=5.4; CI95%: 1.5–19.1).
Conclusions: The implementation of post accident protocols aiming to reduce under notification and to increase post accident serological follow-up is suggested. The importance to sensitize professionals regarding the need to develop safe practices and seek new alternatives to minimize occupational risks is highlighted.
Table 1: Percentage distribution of occupational accidents with exposure to biological material and post accident procedures according to professional category from the emergency medical services.
|Occupational accident in the last year||33.3||11.1||15.6||24.0|
|Vehicles of transmission|
|Piercing cutting material||16.7||40.0||66.7|
|Medical evaluation post accident||16.7||30.0||50.0|
|Reporting Occupational Accidents||10.0||16.7|
|Immediate post accident procedure|
|Quick HIV test in HIV-positive patients: retroviral in less than two hours post accident||10.0||16.7|
|Quick HIV test in HIV-negative patients||33.3||40.0||50.0|
|No, patients seemed healthy||66.7||100.0||50.0||33.3|
|Post-accident serological monitoring|
|Immediately post accident, 3 and 6 months and 1 year||33.3||30.0||16.7|
|Immediately post accident and after 3 months||16.7|
|Only one exam post accident||16.7||10.0||33.3|