Objective: To describe the microbiological characteristics and risk factors for bloodstream infection by Gram-Negative Bacilli (GNB) in renal transplant recipients.
Methods: We conducted a case-control study of GNB bloodstream infection from kidney transplant patients at two large tertiary hospitals in
Results: There were 129 cases of bloodstream infection by GNB during the study period. Of these 58.9% (n = 76) were male, the mean and median hospital stay were 36.1 and 18 days, respectively. Fifty-one percent (n = 66) were from deceased donors and in 20.2% (n = 26) was performed induction therapy. The 30-day mortality was 20.2% (n = 26). Of the isolates, 43.4% (n = 56) were Escherichia coli. In univariate analysis, acute rejection (p = 0.021 - OR 2.46 [1.18-5.12]), induction therapy (p = 0.05 - OR 2.07 [1.03-4.18), corticosteroid use (p = 0.03 - OR 3.26 [1.15-9.26 ) cadaver donor (p = 0.001 - OR 4.58 [2.61-8.04]) and presence of double-J (p = 0.005 - OR 2.45 [1.33-4.48]) were considered risk factors for GNB bloodstream infection. In the multivariate analysis, cadaver donor proved to be a risk factor for the event studied (p = 0.01 - OR 3.98 [2.15-7.37]).
Conclusions: There have been many advances in surgical techniques and immunosuppression for kidney transplant recipients in recent years. However, the infection remains a major problem following these patients. In this sense, knowledge of the microbiological profile and risk factors for bloodstream infection may help to improve care of these patients.